Wastewater is water that has been used and contaminated and includes both domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater. Due to environmental concerns and regulatory restrictions, wastewater is not suitable for discharge into public sewers or the environment such as rivers, lakes and oceans unless it has first undergone treatment to remove certain pollutants. Environmental regulations typically stipulate the standards to which wastewater must be treated before it is permitted to be discharged into the environment. The main pollutants in sewage and industrial wastewater include dissolved and undissolved organic and inorganic materials, suspended solids, complex chemicals and heavy metals.

Once the pollutants in the wastewater are identified, a combination of some or all of the following technologies is used:

– Physical removal methods through the use of screening, sedimentation, clarification, membrane separation to remove suspended solids;

– Chemical treatment methods through the use of various chemical to breakdown pollutants through chemical reaction, disinfection, pH adjustment and precipitation (coagulation and flocculation); and

– Biological treatment methods through the use of different micro-organisms, mostly bacteria to breakdown and remove organic wastewater contents, ammonium and nitrate contaminants such as through the activated sludge process. We also use MBBR and MBR processes to enhance our Wastewater Treatment Solutions:

– MBBR is a wastewater treatment process which consists of an aeration tank, with speciality floating carrier medium or house such as the PVA gel from Kuraray for maximum contact with the wastewater, air and bacteria to increase efficiency of the process and minimise the size of the tank. This process is used for the removal of organic substances, such as BOD and COD, ammonia, nitrification and denitrification. The aeration tank keeps the floating carrier medium or house with activated sludge in motion. The excess bacteria growth and sludge will be separated from the floating carrier medium or house and will flow with the treated water towards the final separator.

– MBR is an integration of biological treatment process such as the activated sludge process with separation of microorganism performed by membrane filtration processes such as microfiltration and ultrafiltration ensuring a high quality effluent.

– As a by-product of biological treatment processes, sludge is produced and a sludge handling system, consisting of sludge thickeners, centrifuges and filter presses, is used to separate solid materials from liquids in the sludge slurry to form a compact sludge for disposal.

– Odours are also removed through odour control facilities prior to release to the environment.